The Jemez State Monument Heritage Area has the stone ruins of a 500 year old Indian village, the remains of a 17th century Catholic mission, and a series of interpretive trails to guide visitors through what survives of the mystical and sophisticated Pueblo of Giusewa. The Jemez Indians established the Pueblo of Giusewa (Gee-say-wah) on a flat oak near the hot springs of Jemez Valley, where centuries ago they found fertile land and plentiful game. From the massive stonewalls they constructed about the same time the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, it appears they planned to stay. Then, 40 years later, the first Europeans arrived and Giusewa Pueblo was never the same. Much of the story of Jemez is of conquest and resistance as elements of European life were introduced—from livestock to religion—and demands were made—from taxation to allegiance. The Jemez people were even forced from the preferred mesa-top communities to valley settlements, where Jemez State Monument is situated. Archaeologists began investigating the San José Mission and pueblo building of Giusewa, in 1910, but it wasn't until 1935 that the sites were preserved as a state monument. The monument opened to the public in 1968. Today, the Visitor Center presents artifacts and anthropological objects, and knowledgable rangers are on duty to answer questions. Lodging and food are nearby in Jemez Springs.